An Introduction to Nonwoven Fabric Bonding Techniques

When the raw materials have been cleaned and sorted, they are spun into a web, the web is bonded together, and the product is finished. Web bonding techniques may be used to alter the properties of the finished product or fabric. Needle punching, hydro-entangling, heat bonding, stitch bonding, and chemical bonding are the most prevalent techniques for connecting webs. This study analyzes many nonwoven fabric techniques and the factors that affect the properties of the final result.

This would improve the method by which you source fabric and make purchases that are suitable for your requirements.

Definition of nonwoven techniques 

Nonwovens fabric techniques are ubiquitous in modern society due to the wide range of uses they find according to their status as highly engineered textiles. They’re adaptable since there are a variety of methods for producing them, each with its own set of benefits and drawbacks, and a high manufacturing capacity. Nonwovens, like any other product, are subject to the same universal need for higher quality and uniformity. Understanding property-structure interactions is crucial for quality improvement and uniformity.

Understanding the interdependence of properties, materials, structures, and processing methods is straightforward since it is evident that a structure is made by using the appropriate materials and processing technique. Yet, while discussing the mechanism and performance of nonwoven processes, the manufacturing and selection of appropriate materials is not relevant. To ensure the nonwoven product is up to snuff, it’s important to have a firm grasp of the interplay between the manufacturing process, the material’s properties, and the fabric’s structure. The qualities of nonwoven fabrics may get alter by modifying the structural variables that influence the process. Several of these issues originate from the bonding process and include bonding type, bonding area, bonding density, bonding strength, bonding point distribution, and the availability of fibre movement inside the bonding region.

Fiber orientation and distribution, fabric dimensions and dimensional stabilities, binder and fibre interface characteristics, fabric porosity, and pore size distributions are all connected to fibre structure. This research aims to shed light on the property-structure connection according to nonwoven fabric methods type by investigating the underlying mechanisms, practical applications, and overall efficacy of various bonding strategies.

Types of nonwoven techniques

Needle punching 

Mechanical bonding relies mostly on barbed needles to interlock and entangle fibres in the bonding process. With needle punched bonding technique, carding and carding with cross lapping are the most common web creation processes. Nevertheless, air lay web formation and spunbond web formation are other viable options. The needle loom’s needling zone receives fibers after the web forming process. The needle board, needles, bed plate, stripper plate, and delivery rolls are the five primary parts of a needle loom. Needle penetration into the fiber web layers bonds the nonwoven fabric mat together, allowing for the creation of highly lifted structures. Needles move forward and backward within the holes cut into the needling plates for a controlled, accurate needling. Needle punching’s main ingredient, needle, has its own vital ingredients that enhance bonding and mixing.

Features of needle punching 

The needle’s barbs and working blades perform crucial functions in blending the web and imparting its characteristics. The cloth may show needling marks, the result of a rather powerful punching motion. Certain fibers in needle gets punch nonwovens fabric are subject to needle impact directly. While others are only indirectly have impact, while still others gets untouch. As a result, the negative consequences of needle punching are mitigated thanks to the mutual compensation between the two groups. Bonding quality, in the form of fabric quality and performance attributes, is connected to the depth of fiber penetration and needle marks. Other significant quality characteristics for the needle punching process include the number of barbs, punch density, needling speed, and fiber kinds.

The high porosity and pore dispersion of needlepunched nonwovens fabrics are among their most distinguishing features. Pre-needling is a recommended extra process that gives the final product more desirable qualities. Pre-needling allows for a thinner web, more strength, and a more consistent overall structure.

As needle punched nonwovens possess numerous desirable qualities, they find employment in a wide variety of sectors of application. Some examples of these characteristics are dimensional stability, permeability, drapeability, moldability, acoustic and thermal qualities, and tensile strength. Needle punched nonwovens are utilized in a wide variety of applications because of their unique qualities, including geotextiles, shoe felts, blankets, filters, insulators, and many more.

Hydro- endtagling 

Conveyor belts were applicable to transport the fibrous web from the web making step to the bonding stage. Many producers employ dry lay techniques to create spunlace nonwovens. However, wet laid and polymer laid web forming software is also widely usable. While most businesses choose dry lay web forming units, the specific machines they use and the sequence in which they operate might vary widely. Impact force provided by high pressure water jets, structure of support components, fiber kinds, conveyor belt speed, prewetting of web, and number of manifolds are all important aspects in the bonding step. Hydroentangled fabric quality is obviously get infleunce by these factors as well.

Unlike other fabric formation methods, the mechanism of hydro entangling at the fabric formation level is not well into use. This is due to the fact that both the conveyor belt and the water jet have very high velocity values during the process. This is making it hard to realize what is happening when the water jet strikes the fiber web. Energy transmission between the fiber web and the water jet may also get enhance by a number of other elements, not only the jet pressure itself.

Yet, the amount of pressure used on a web is far more crucial in determining the quality of the connection. Low-pressure water jets can only achieve little fiber tangling on the web surface. Yet, high-pressure water jets may cause fibers to distort and break. Also, potentially alter the orientation of the fibers themselves. Other than the water jet impact, the performance of the end product is also get affect by the second strategy supporting structure type and entangling density.

Application of technique

The wipes business and the medical nonwoven fabric sector both rely significantly on hydroentangled textiles because of their additive-free, lint-free, soft, robust, and affordable qualities. They are also useful in the production of automobile parts, filters, packaging, insulation, roofing, geotextiles, diapers, and personal hygiene items. Interlinings, mattress pad covers, scrub suits, towels, flannel replacement textiles, washable domestic fabrics, high temperature protection apparel, fake leather, and countless more goods may benefit from using hydroentangled materials.

Thermal Bonding

There is a need that must get satisfy before thermal bonding of the fibrous web structures come into performance. Thermoplastic fibres or powders are essential in a fibrous web. Polypropylene, polyester, nylon, polyethylene, and a few others are the thermoplastic fibres most often come into use. Thermal bonding may get purchase in essentially four distinct varieties. The fibre web gets heat and bond using the through-air bonding process as it travels down a conveyor belt. The amount of dwell time in this approach relies on getting the right balance between the flatbed’s length, the heated air’s temperature, and the throughput rate. For webs with certain base weights, this dwell period is crucial for achieving the necessary thermal equilibrium.

Chemical bonding 

Fabric creation gets manifestation by the application of resin or latex to the framework, making this a very adaptable method. It finds use as a filtering medium, a garment interlining, an industrial wipe substrate. Also, a food service wipe substrate, a baby wipe substrate, a wet wipe substrate, and as a wet wipe substrate. Nonwovens fabric functionality is profoundly get impact by the latex’s chemical composition and processing conditions during bonding. For first-mover processing convenience, the glass transition temperature must be lowered. It must be the right sort of surfactant and have the right molecular weight, reactivity, functional groups, and backbone. Otherwise, the inappropriate latex choice might have a negative impact on the product’s longevity. Also, affects tensile strength, softness, hardness, elasticity, and other qualities.


In this article, we explored mainly three types of nonwoven fabric techniques that are majorly applicable in the industry. I hope this would have helped you in gaining knowledge. 

If you are part of this industry or owning a boutique store then you can source fabric from fabriclore. From here you can get unlimited varieties of textiles with new trends and designs. You can also customize wholesale fabrics with your imagination and our creativity. 

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